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Contemporary Issues And Challenges In The Indian Education System

10 June 2016

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Indian Educational System – A Review


India is known for its educational excellence. Indian Education has recently gained global recognition with its distinguished diversity character. Different curriculum bodies govern the school education system in India. They are:

  • 1. The National Council of Educational Research and Training
  • 2. The State government Boards
  • 3. Central Board of Secondary Education
  • 4. The Council of Indian School Certificate Examination
  • 5. The National Institute of Open Schooling
  • 6. Islamic Madrasah School Boards
  • 7. Autonomous schools like Woodstock School, Sri Aurobindo International Centre of Education, Auroville, Patha Bhavan and Ananda Marga Gurukula.
  • 8. International schools, under the International Baccalaureate, or the Cambridge

There are 34 boards of secondary and senior secondary education in India (Studylib, 2017). More than 95% of the schools in India are affiliated to State Boards.

Private and Government schools

There are schools owned by Government as well as private parties (aided and self-financed).In 2006, 19% of Indian children were privately educated. This figure jumped to 38% in 2014 (MHRD., 2016). Private schooling has been growing continuously and found desirable by the people, irrespective of their socio-economic status

International schools

In January 2015, the International Schools Consultancy listed India as having 410 international schools. More than 95% of the international schools offer a dual curriculum (international and a national curriculum like CBSE, ICSE or State board)

Higher education

India has about 152 central universities, 316 state universities and 191 private universities. Otherinstitutions include 33,623 colleges, including 1,800 exclusive women's colleges, and 12,748 institutions offering Diploma Courses (Indrail, 2015). The University Grants Commission coordinates, determines and maintains the standards of higher education at various levels. The bodies responsible for the different professional programmes are: All India Council for Technical Education, Indian Council for Agriculture Research, Distance Education Council, National Council for Teacher Education, Bar Council of India, Medical Council of India, Indian Nursing Council, Central Council of Homeopathy, Pharmacy Council of India, Central Council of Indian Medicine and Dentist Council of India.

Open and distance learning

At the school level, National Institute of Open Schooling provides opportunities for continuingeducation to those who missed completing school education. 14 lakh students are enrolled at the secondary and higher secondary level through open and distance learning. In 2012, various state governments also introduced State Open School to provide distance education.At higher education level, Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) co-ordinates distance learning. It has a cumulative enrolment of 15 lakh, serviced through 53 regional centres. The Distance Education Council an authority of IGNOU is co-coordinating 13 State Open Universities and 119 institutions of correspondence courses in conventional universities

Vocational education

All India Council of Technical Education reported in 2013 that there were more than 4,599 vocational institutions that offer degrees, diploma and post-diploma in architecture, engineering, hotel management, infrastructure, pharmacy, technology, town services and others. Total annual intake capacity for technical diplomas and degrees exceeded 34 lakhs.In 2016, 10 public and 10 private educational institutions were made world-class. Rs 1,000crore budget was provided for higher education. Rs 1,700 crore was provided for 1500 multi-skill development centres. 62 new navodaya vidyalaya were created to provide quality education. A digital literacy scheme was launched for covering six crore additional rural households. The National Skill Development Mission was initiated to impart training to 76 lakh youth (India Today, 2017). Entrepreneurship training was provided across schools and colleges along with massive online courses. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan was introduced to increase focus on quality of education

* Author: Dr. R. N. Nadar
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